Chiropractic’s Many Benefits

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In 2010, Dr. Gert Bronfort published a pinnacle report that reviewed studies published up to 2009 and identified 26 categories of conditions for which there is evidence that manual therapies (including spinal manipulation, mobilization, and massage) are beneficial. These 26 categories included thirteen musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions (like low back and neck pain), four types of chronic headache, and nine non-MSK conditions (like infantile colic).

In 2014, the 2010 study was “updated” by Dr. Christine Clar and five colleagues from the Warwick Medical School in the United Kingdom using the same methodologies. They concentrated on the conditions that resulted in a “negative” or an “inconclusive” result in 2010 and either confirmed, updated, or added a new category based on the results of newer research.

After reviewing 25,539 studies, other conditions such as shoulder rotator cuff disorder, cervicogenic headache, and other types of headaches were added to the list. They also added a large number of non-MSK conditions they had not previously considered, of which most were rated ‘inconclusive.’

The 2014 study pointed out the continued need for more high-quality research on many conditions, but it shed light on a significant number of conditions not previously reported in the 2010 study such as TMD (jaw pain), myofascial pain syndrome, active upper trapezius trigger points and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, shoulder disorders, nerve and muscle pain in the shoulder, plantar fasciitis, arthritis with and without angulation of the great toe (big toe), and many more!

The non-MSK conditions that Dr. Clar and her team found that are in need of further high-quality studies include: asthma, cervicogenic dizziness, hypertension, infantile colic, enuresis, pneumonia/respiratory disorders, dysmenorrhoea, and PMS.  “NEW” categories include: ADHD/learning disorders, cancer care, cerebral palsy, chronic fatigue, chronic pelvic pain, cystic fibrosis, gastrointestinal, menopause, Parkinson’s disease, pregnancy and neonatal and post-natal care, rehabilitation, and peripheral arterial disease.

Obviously, these two studies have taken the quest of determining the current “science” behind many of the claims that doctors of chiropractic have made for many conditions HEAD ON. This is a VERY important step in the right direction so we as healthcare professionals can tell our patients which conditions are likely or not likely to respond to this form of care based on research!

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When Teens Get Headaches

In 2016, researchers at Curtin University in Perth examined the seated posture and health data of 1,108 17-year olds in an effort to determine if any particular posture increased the risk of headaches/neck pain among late adolescents.

Among four posture subgroups—upright, intermediate, slumped thorax, and forward head—the researchers observed the following: participants who were slumped in their thoracic spine (mid-back region) and had their head forward when they sat were at higher odds of having mild, moderate, or severe depression; participants classified as having a more upright posture exercised more frequently, females were more likely to sit more upright than males; those who were overweight were more likely to sit with a forward neck posture; and taller people were more likely to sit upright.

While they found biopsychosocial factors like exercise frequency, depression, and body mass index (BMI) ARE associated with headaches and neck pain, their data did not suggest any one particular posture increased the risk of neck pain or headaches more than any other posture among the teenagers involved in the study.

This is noteworthy as studies with adults do indicate the risk for neck pain and headaches is greater in individuals with poor neck posture. In particular, postures such as forward head carriage, pinching a phone between the ear and shoulder, and prolonged neck/head rotation outside of neutral can all increase the risk of cervical disorders. This suggests that in younger bodies, the cause of neck pain and headaches may be multifactoral and not limited to just poor posture and that treatment must address all issues that may increase one’s risk for neck pain/headaches in order to reach a desired outcome.

The good news is that chiropractic has long embraced the biopsychosocial model of healthcare, looking at ALL factors that affect back and neck pain and quality of life. Through patient education, spinal manipulation, mobilization, exercise training, the use of modalities, and more, chiropractors can greatly help those struggling with neck pain and headaches!

Hip or LB? Which is it?

Technically, the hip is the ball-and-socket joint between the long bone of the thigh and the pelvis; but more often than not, many people will point to a number of different places on their back or pelvis and say, “My hip is killing me” when it’s not really “the hip” at all!
Hip pain can be located in the front (groin area), the side, the back, or in the buttocks. The “classic sign” of hip pain is reproduced most consistently when you try to cross your legs—put your ankle on the far end of the thigh and then push down on your knee. This may feel tight and cause pain in the groin area. For many people, hip pain is also reproduced when they cross their legs and then pull their knee towards the opposite shoulder.
The hip is a VERY strong joint due to the deep receiving cup of the pelvis and the round ball that fits nicely into it. Because it’s a freely moving joint, there is a joint capsule. The capsule is lined with tissue that produces an oily substance that lubricates the joint (called synovial fluid), and when hip pain occurs, this can be caused by a capsulitis (inflammation of the capsule) with a buildup of synovial fluid (called synovitis).
When the smooth, shiny surface of the ball starts to wear thin (which can eventually wear away down to the bone), that’s a condition called “osteoarthritis.” This occurs over time for many and may eventually result in the need for a hip replacement. This usually isn’t needed until an individual is in their late 60s or older (if at all), but for those who injure a hip earlier in life, the “wearing out” process may accelerate and a hip replacement may be needed well before old age.
There are many studies that report low back and hip arthritis often occur together, and differentiating between the two can sometimes be a challenge. For example, pain can radiate from the hip to the knee, which many doctors will diagnose as “sciatic nerve.” But hip pain can present exactly the same, making it hard to determine if it’s low back-generated pain or hip-generated pain.
This is why it’s SO IMPORTANT that your doctor of chiropractic conduct a careful history and examination. There are specific tests that he or she will perform that help determine which of the two is causing the pain. There are times when they may find BOTH problems co-existing together, making it necessary to manage two problems, rather than just one.
There are many mobilization, manipulation, soft tissue therapies, modalities, and exercises available to patients with both hip and low back pain. So if you’re not sure what is bothering you and you don’t know what to do, visit your doctor of chiropractic and he or she will help you through this.

What Is Facet Syndrome?

facet joint

As stated in previous articles, low back pain (LBP) can arise from many different structures. Lumbar facet syndrome is one that involves the facet joint and includes both acute (new) and chronic (old) varieties. The facet joint is synonymous with the zygapophyseal joint, so if you hear that word, don’t let it throw you off! Approximately 45% of patients with chronic low back pain suffer from “facet syndrome” (FS) in which the facets are the low back pain generator.
There are many conditions that give rise to FS. Some of these include the straining of the surrounding joint capsule (the capsule holds the joint securely together), joint hypomobility (reduced motion in the joint), a synovial cyst (similar to a ganglion on the back of the wrist but its located inside the joint), and degeneration (also called osteoarthritis—the wearing out type of arthritis).
Because facet syndrome can accompany other conditions, a doctor of chiropractic must evaluate each patient individually and manage each person appropriately. In “pure” facet syndrome, pain rarely ever passes the level of the knee and does not cause neurological loss (weakness, loss of reflex, etc.). It can create numbness but usually NOT beyond the knee. Pain is usually not worsened by hip movements such as straight leg raise or hip rotation.
The facet joint’s “job” (at least in part) is to limit or guard twisting movements in the upper lumbar/low back region, and the lower lumbar facets are shaped to limit motion when bending forwards and backwards. Facet joints are unique because they are innervated by specific nerves that can be blocked by injecting an anesthetic agent to determine if the facet (and its innervating nerve) is the main source of pain. The surrounding capsule around the facet joint contains mechanoreceptors (cells that detect movement) and nociceptors (cells that detect pain) that fire when the facet joint is compressed/jammed or over-stretched. These nociceptors can become “hypersensitized” (very irritable) when they remain inflamed over time.
In many patients, injury to a facet joint is the result of many microtraumas over a period of time and not one single isolated event. For example, repeatedly bending backwards, twisting, and leaning to one side can stretch the joint capsule and fatigue it until some capsular tissues finally “give” and it inflames which generates pain.
These joints commonly become arthritic with age, which is one reason people over 50-60 years old commonly present with FS. Osteoarthritis results in a narrowing of the joint space and causes a more permanently “jammed” joint. This is one reason many elderly people walk partially bent over—as bending forwards opens the facet joints and “feels good!”
The good news is that chiropractic manipulation is a highly effective treatment for facet syndrome, and most patients feel much better within the first or second week of care (often within three to five visits).

What is causing my LBP?

ResezrchLow back pain (LBP) can arise from disks, nerves, joints, and the surrounding soft tissues. To simplify the task of determining “What is causing my LBP?” the Quebec Task Force recommends that LBP be divided into three main categories:

1) Mechanical LBP

2) Nerve root related back pain and

3) Pathology or fracture. We will address the first two, as they are most commonly managed by chiropractors.
Making the proper diagnosis points your doctor in the right direction regarding treatment. It avoids time wasted by treating an unrelated condition, which runs the risk of increased chances of a poor and/or prolonged recovery. Low back pain is no exception! The “correct” diagnosis allows treatment to be focused and specific so that it will yield the best results.
Mechanical low back pain is the most commonly seen type of back pain, and it encompasses pain that arises from sprains, strains, facet and sacroiliac (SI) syndromes, and more. The main difference between this and nerve root-related LBP is the ABSENCE of a pinched nerve. Hence, pain typically does NOT radiate, and if it does, it rarely goes beyond the knee and normally does not cause weakness in the leg.
The mechanism of injury for both types of LBP can occur when a person does too much, maintains an awkward position for too long, or over bends, lifts, and/or twists. However, LBP can also occur “insidiously” or for seemingly no reason at all. However, in most cases, if one thinks hard enough, they can identify an event or a series of “micro-traumas” extending back in time that may be the “cause” of their current low back pain issues.
Nerve root-related LBP is less common but it is often more severe—as the pain associated with a pinched nerve is often very sharp, can radiate down a leg often to the foot, and cause numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness. The location of the weakness depends on which nerve is pinched.

Think of the nerve as a wire to a light and the switch of the nerve is located in the back where it exits the spine. When the switch is turned on (the nerve is pinched), and the “light” turns on—possibly in the outer foot, middle foot, inner foot, or front, back or side of the thigh. In fact, there are seven nerves that innervate or “run” into our leg, so usually, a very specific location “lights up” in the limb.
Determining the cause of your low back pain helps your doctor of chiropractic determine which treatments may work best to alleviate your pain as well as where such treatments can be focused.

Those “other” causes of back pain

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Between 80% and 90% of the general population will experience an episode of lower back pain (LBP) at least once during their lives. When it affects the young to middle-aged, we often use the term “non-specific LBP” to describe the condition. The geriatric population suffers from the “aging effects” of the spine—things like degenerative joint disease, degenerative disk disease, and spinal stenosis. Fractures caused by osteoporosis can also result in back pain.
The “good news” is that there are rare times when your doctor must consider a serious cause of LBP. That’s why he or she will ask about or check the following during your initial consultation:
1) Have you had bowel or bladder control problems? (This is to make sure a patient doesn’t have “cauda equina syndrome”—a very severely pinched nerve.)
2) Take a patient’s temperature and ask about any recent urinary or respiratory tract
infections to rule out spinal infections.
3) To rule out cancer, a doctor may ask about a family or personal history of cancer, recent unexplained weight loss, LBP that won’t go away with time, or sleep interruptions that are out of the ordinary.
4) To rule out fractures, a doctor may also take x-rays if a patient is over age 70 regardless of trauma due to osteoporosis, over age 50 with minor trauma, and at any age with major trauma.
Once a doctor of chiropractic can rule out the “dangerous” causes of LBP, the “KEY” form of treatment is giving reassurance that LBP is manageable and advise LBP sufferers of ALL ages (especially the elderly) to KEEP MOVING! Of course, the speed at which we move depends on many things—first is safety, but perhaps more importantly is to NOT BECOME AFRAID to do things! As we age, we gradually fall out of shape and end up blaming our age for the inability to do simple normal activities. Regardless of age, we must GRADUALLY increase our activities to avoid the trap of sedentary habits resulting in deconditioning followed “fear avoidant behavior!”
Here are a few “surprising” reasons your back may be “killing you”:
1) You’re feeling down – That’s right, having “the blues” and more serious mood disorders, like depression, can make it more difficult to cope with pain. Also, depression often reduces the drive to exercise, may disturb sleep, and can affect dietary decisions—all of which are LBP contributors.
2) Your phone – Poor posture caused by holding a phone between your bent head and shoulder (get a headset!) or prolonged mobile phone use can increase your risk for spinal pain.
3) Your feet hurt, which makes you walk with an altered gait pattern, forcing compensatory movements up the “kinetic chain” leading to LBP.
4) Core muscle weakness, especially if you add to that a “pendulous abdomen” from being overweight—this is a recipe for disaster for LBP.
5) Tight short muscles such as hamstrings, hip rotator muscles, and/or tight hip joint capsules are common problems that contribute to LBP. Stretching exercises can REALLY help!

10 tricks to help LBP

Fat
Low back pain (LBP) is VERY likely to affect all of us at some point in life. The question is, do you control IT or does IT control you? Here are ten “tricks” for staying in control of “IT!”
1)  STRETCH: When you’re in one position for a long time (like sitting at your desk), SET your cell phone timer to remind yourself to get moving and stretch every 30-60 minutes! Mornings are a great time to stretch.
2)  BE SMART: Do NOT place your computer monitor anywhere other than directly in front of you. Shop carefully for a GOOD supportive office chair that is comfortable and a good fit.
3)  POSTURE: For sitting, sit as upright as comfortably possible keeping your chin tucked in so the head stays back over the shoulders.
4)  SHOE WEAR: Avoid wearing heels greater than one inch high (2.54 cm). A supportive shoe that can be worn COMFORTABLY for several hours is ideal! Generally, the “skimpier” the shoe, the worse the support, so don’t “skimp” on shoe wear!
5)  SMOKING: Carbon monoxide from cigarette smoke competes with oxygen at each cell in the body literally suffocating them, which makes the healing process more difficult.
6)  WEIGHT: Your body mass index (BMI) should be between 18.5 and 25. Search the internet for “BMI Calculator” and plug in your height and weight to figure out yours.  BMI is a reliable indicator of body fatness and a great way to determine where you are at for goal setting.
7)  ANTI-INFLAMMATION: Common over the counter (OTC) medications include ibuprofen and naproxen. However, recent studies show these types of medications (NSAIDS) may delay the healing process. A healthier choice is ginger, turmeric, and bioflavonoids, which are commonly bundled together in a supplement. Eat fresh fruits, veggies, lean meats, and food rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D, magnesium, and coenzyme Q10 are also smart choices. AVOID FAST FOOD as they tent to be rich in omega-6 fatty acids, which can promote inflammation.
8)  ICE: This could be included in #7 but deserves its own space. Ice reduces swelling while heat promotes it. Try rotations of ice every 15-20 minutes for about an hour three times a day to “pump” out the swelling!
9)  STAY ACTIVE: Balance rest with physical activity like exercise or simply going for a walk. The most important thing is to move your body around.
10)  STRENGTHEN: Core stabilizing exercises (sit-ups, planks, quadruped) and BALANCE exercises are VERY important!