One of the most common sources of headache pain is trigger points in the neck muscles. These muscles are often overloaded from poor posture such as sitting in front of a computer or looking down at you phone for long periods of time. Trigger points that form in the upper traps are the most common trigger points in the body. They refer pain up the neck, behind the ear into the temple. The suboccipital muscles refer pain deep into the skull behind the eye. Sternocleidomastoid trigger points will refer pain to the top of the head and around the orbit of the eye. Trigger points need to be manually released to be resolved.
Planter fascitis is a painful condition affecting the bottoms of the feet. It involves inflammation and tightness of the planter fascia, which is a tough layer of connective tissue on the bottoms of the feet. Trigger points in the calf and foot muscles are a leading cause of planter fascitis. These points not only cause the muscle to become tight which in turn causes the fascia to be tight, but the trigger point pain referral patterns of these muscle will cause pain to be felt in the bottoms of the feet and heal. These causes are often overlooked leading to ineffective treatment and prolonged suffering.
The gluteus medius muscle is located in the hip. It is a major pelvic stabilizer during walking and running. It is also a main abductor of the hip. Trigger points in this muscle will refer pain deep into the sacrum and s.i. joints. Pain will also be refered into the buttock as well as into the low back along the belt line.
Myofascial pain syndrome is caused by a stimulus, such as muscle tightness, that sets off trigger points in your muscles. Factors that may increase your risk of muscle
trigger points include:
- Muscle injury. An acute muscle injury or continual muscle stress may lead to the development of trigger points. For example, a spot within or near a strained muscle may become a trigger point. Repetitive motions and poor posture also may increase your risk.
- Stress and anxiety. People who frequently experience stress and anxiety may be more likely to develop trigger points in their muscles. One theory holds that these people may be more likely to clench their muscles, a form of repeated strain that leaves muscles susceptible to trigger point
Sensitive areas of tight muscle fibers can form in your muscles after injuries or overuse. These sensitive areas are called trigger points. A trigger point in a muscle can cause strain and pain throughout the muscle. When this pain persists and worsens, doctors call it myofascial pain syndrome.
Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic pain disorder. In this condition, pressure on sensitive points in your muscles (trigger points) causes pain in the muscle and sometimes in seemingly unrelated parts of your body. This is called referred pain.
This syndrome typically occurs after a muscle has been contracted repetitively. This can be caused by repetitive motions used in jobs or hobbies or by stress-related muscle tension.
Some very interesting information from an article by our friends at physiology-pedia.com:
In the United Kingdom there are a large number of children and adolescents who are participating in sport. The government is currently spending over £450 million on improving the quality of the Physical Education and sport activities that pupils are offered 
leading to high numbers of participants in sport, not only inside of school but outside as well, 96.7% of children aged 11-16 and 84.1% of children aged 5-10 participated in sport outside of school 
The young person with athletic potential is likely to have enhanced physiological and physical attributes compared to their peers 
and can therefore be defined as a young athlete.
Low back pain
(LBP) occurs in approximately 10% to 15% of young athletes
. Schmidt et al (2014) found that competitive adolescent athletes compared to aged matched individuals have increased prevalence of back pain
LBP is defined as pain localised between the 12th rib and inferior gluteal folds, occuring with or without leg pain 
There are significant differences between the nature of LBP in adults and young athletes . The most common causes of LBP in young athletes are spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, hyperlordosis syndrome (posterior element overuse syndrome) and discogenic pain.
The growing spine introduces certain variables that predisposes the back of the young to specific injuries such as pars interarticularis injury; reported to occur in up to 47% of young athletes .
It is of great importance for an athlete with persisting symptoms to undergo a thorough assessment .
The impact of the structural problems is considered alongside other aspects such as psychological, social and cultural issues . This approach facilitates compliance with the rehabilitation process and promotes recovery , as there is evidence showing athletes with a prior back injury are 3 times more likely to develop LBP .
Young athletes are not immune to the injuries and conditions that plague adult athletes and need to be assessed and treated just as adults do. While the methods and techniques may vary depending on the age of the child, we need to be sure that we avoid the old tropes of “no pain, no gain” and “you’re a kid, you can’t be hurt”.
Jump up ↑ Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Department for Education. Getting more people playing sport, February 2013.
Jump up ↑ Department for Culture Media and Sport. Taking Part 13/14 Annual Child Report. Statistic Release September 2014.
↑ Jump up to: 3.0 3.1 3.2 Armstrong N, Van Mechelen W. Paediatric Exercise Science and Medicine. Oxford University Press, 2008
Jump up ↑ d’Hemecourt PA, Gerbino PG, Micheli LJ. Back injuries in the young athlete.Clin Sports Med. 2000 Oct;19(4):663-79.
↑ Jump up to: 5.0 5.1 5.2 Schmidt CP, Zwingenberger S, Walther A, Reuter U, Kasten P, Seifert J, Günther KP, Stiehler M. Prevalence of low back pain in adolescent athletes – an epidemiological investigation. Int J Sports Med. 2014; 35(8):684-9
Jump up ↑ Krismer M, van Tulder M. Strategies for prevention and management of musculoskeletal conditions. Low back pain (non-specific). Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007; Feb;21(1):77-91.
↑ Jump up to: 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Micheli LJ, WoodR. Back pain in young adults. Significant differences from adults in causes and patterns. Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine1995;Vol 149
Jump up ↑ Greene HS, Cholewicki J, GallowayMT, Nguyen CV, Radebold A. A history of low back injury is a risk factor for recurrent back injuries in varsity athletes. Am J Sports Med.2001;29(6):795-800.